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30-10-2014 22:52:00 | by: Administrator | hits: 13721296 | Tags:

AfDB launches Africa Energy Portal to disseminate data across the value chain
14-11-2018 | 06:13:39
The African Development Bank has unveiled the Africa Energy Portal, AEP, a platform that will consolidate, validate, and disseminate energy data and insights across Africa’s energy value chain.
Africa agribusiness, a $1tr business by 2030
12-11-2018 | 07:27:00
With its vast agricultural potential, Africa’s agribusiness sector is predicted to reach US$1 trillion by 2030. Agribusiness will become the ‘new oil” on the continent.
African Development Bank, International Financial Institutions launch co-guarantee platform
08-11-2018 | 06:38:00
The African Development Bank alongside Islamic Corporation for the Insurance of Investment and Export Credit, African Trade Insurance Agency and GuarantCo, on Wednesday entered into a Memorandum of Understanding for a Co-Guarantee Platform.
[Interview] Raza Hasnani, Head of Infrastructure Investments, Africa50 Fund
30-10-2018 | 11:57:00
The AfDB launched its Room2Run initiative last month which effectively freed up $700m off the bank’s balance sheet. We spoke to Raza Hasnani from Africa50 fund who helped structure the deal.
[Malawi] African Development Bank approves $15m grant for water Supply and sanitation project
29-10-2018 | 06:30:00
The African Development Bank Group has approved a US$15 million grant from the African Development Fund for a water supply and sanitation project in Malawi, expected to provide jobs and boost the livelihoods of nearly 300,000 people.
AfDB launches $500m credit insurance deal with ATI, UK reinsurers
23-10-2018 | 05:14:00
The African Development Bank and African Trade Insurance Agency have announced the successful completion of a US$500 million credit insurance deal structured to cover a portion of the Bank’s portfolio of non-sovereign operations in Africa.
The African Development Bank makes senior appointments
22-10-2018 | 11:51:00
The President of the African Development Bank Group, Dr Akinwumi A. Adesina, has announced new appointments to the Group.
AfDB leads pan-African campaign against Fall Army Worm
17-10-2018 | 14:06:00
The African Development Bank recently convened a meeting of experts in the agricultural sector to design integrated pest and disease management mechanisms for controlling the spread of the Fall Army Worm in East Africa.
AfDB injects $266 million into Rwanda’s electricity expansion project
02-10-2018 | 12:13:04
The African Development Bank has approved a loan of $266 million to support Rwanda’s program to improve electricity supply reliability and expand access to electricity.
Morocco top tourist destination in Africa, survey
28-09-2018 | 06:12:00
According to the July issue of Africa Tourism Monitor 2018, recently published by the African Development Bank, the continent earned $36.2 billion in revenue from 62.9 million international visitors in 2016.
AfDB approves $50m facility to support Nigeria’s rural population
28-09-2018 | 06:05:00
The African Development Bank has approved a $50 million line of credit to Nigeria’s Sterling Bank Plc to support micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) in strategic sectors.
Eskom set to expand transmission network with $218 loan from AfDB
27-09-2018 | 13:05:00
The African Development Bank has approved a $217.9 million loan to South Africa’s power utility Eskom Holdings Ltd, towards the upgrade and expansion of its transmission facilities.
AfDB seeks partners to lift one billion people out of hunger globally
26-09-2018 | 13:45:00
The African Development Bank has called on global partners to join hands to lift one billion people worldwide out of hunger and said it was leading the way by investing $24 billion in African agriculture.
AfDB boosts jobs for Youth in Africa Strategy with $2 million
26-09-2018 | 06:49:38
The African Development Bank’s Fund for African Private Sector Assistance (FAPA), has provided funds totaling nearly US $2 million to its Jobs for Youth in Africa initiative.
AfDB supports Ghana’s Renewable Energy Sector with $1.5m grant
25-09-2018 | 05:25:00
The African Development Bank has approved a US$1.5 million grant from its Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa (SEFA), to assist Ghana’s s renewable energy investment drive.
[Liberia] AfDB approves $1m to boost private sector in wood industry
24-09-2018 | 06:00:00
The African Development Bank’s Fund for African Private Sector Assistance, has approved a grant of US $1 million to Liberia, to provide technical assistance to its fast-growing wood processing industry.
AfDB issues global benchmark bond of $ 2 billion for 5 years
19-09-2018 | 13:15:31
The African Development Bank, rated triple AAA by the international rating agencies Moody's, S & P and Fitch, has proceeded with a new benchmark bond of $ 2 billion to five years, which will expire on September 20, 2023.
AfDB invests €84 million in Cameroon livestock and fish farming
14-09-2018 | 09:05:38
The African Development Bank Group has extended a loan of €84 million to Cameroon to support livestock and fish production in the central African country in line with the Bank’s strategies to create jobs and raise household incomes.
AfDB unveils tool to assess resilience and fragility in countries
13-09-2018 | 13:35:29
The African Development Bank has created and refined a new tool to diagnose fragility in countries, taking into account their capacities and pressures they may be under.
African Development Bank approves policy on non-sovereign operations
13-09-2018 | 06:44:00
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank Group has approved the Bank’s Policy on Non-sovereign Operations (NSO).
AfDB commits to support Equatorial Guinea’s agro industry plan
06-09-2018 | 13:01:03
The African Development Bank group has committed to support Equatorial Guinea’s economic diversification into agro-industry and a program of capacity building to foster public policies.
AfDB to invest $30 million in Togo’s agribusiness
30-08-2018 | 07:15:01
The African Development Bank Group has signed loan and grant agreements with the Government of Togo for a total of some 16.63 billion FCFA, as part of its Food Processing Project.
AfDB and FAO target agriculture investments to create wealth in Africa
28-08-2018 | 05:58:03
The African Development Bank (AfDB) and FAO have agreed to boost joint efforts aimed at catalysing agriculture sector investments in Africa to end hunger .
AfDB, Namibia sign $217.8m loan for economic governance in Namibia
23-08-2018 | 06:18:00
The Government of the Republic of Namibia and the African Development Bank have signed a loan agreement worth US$ 217.8 million (ZAR 3 billion) to finance the second phase of the Namibia Economic Governance and Competitiveness Support Program.
EAC Secretariat, AfDB discuss deepening regional integration
07-08-2018 | 07:14:00
An African Development Bank mission led by Dr. Marcellin Ndong Ntah, Lead Economisthave visited the EAC headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania.
African Development Bank announces new appointments
02-08-2018 | 06:31:00
The African Development Bank Group is pleased to announce the appointment of Dr. Mateus Magala as Vice President for Corporate Services and Human Resources, effective from September 1, 2018.
AfDB signs $41m grant for Sudan’s Agriculture Development Project
30-07-2018 | 07:45:00
The African Development Bank on Thursday signed a US$41-million grant agreement with Republic of Sudan to finance a public sector Agriculture Value Chain Development Project in the country.
Tunisia to use drones for data collection in agricultural sector
30-07-2018 | 07:30:00
Tunisia and the African Development Bank have signed an agreement for the launch of a pilot project to use drones for data collection to enhance management of agricultural projects in the country.
AfDB approves $250m Risk Participation Agreement with ABSA
23-07-2018 | 05:42:00
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank has approved an unfunded US$ 250-million Risk Participation Agreement with ABSA Bank Limited.
African Development Bank approves South Africa Country Strategy Paper
20-07-2018 | 06:36:00
The African Development Bank has approved a string of measures aimed at supporting South Africa’s economic development ambitions as an upper Middle-Income Country.
AfDB, Afreximbank sign factoring project to support African SMEs
16-07-2018 | 06:06:00
The African Development Bank, through its Trade Finance operations, and Afreximbank has signed a Grant Agreement to support the development of factoring on the continent.
Tanzania’s economic reform programme receives $40 million AfDB support
12-07-2018 | 08:11:00
Tanzania’s ongoing macroeconomic reform program has received a boost from the African Development Bank through a $40 million budget support loan to be provided by the African Development Fund, the concessional arm of the Bank Group.
USTDA and AfDB expand procurement partnerships in Africa
03-07-2018 | 08:06:00
The African Development Bank has signed a memorandum of understanding with the U.S. Trade and Development Agency to partner under USTDA’s Global Procurement Initiative: Understanding Best Value.
AfDB approves $116 million loan to Central People's Bank of Morocco
29-06-2018 | 06:40:05
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank Group has approved a line of credit of 100 million euros for the benefit of the Central People's Bank of Morocco (BCP).
AfDB approves $62m loan for Uganda's water and sanitation distribution
26-06-2018 | 08:34:00
In a bid to help Uganda improve heath and productivity in the country’s major towns, the African Development Bank has approved a US$ 62-million concessional loan to finance its Strategic Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Project.
AfDB launches first electricity regulatory index for Africa
21-06-2018 | 06:13:00
Though African countries have developed robust institutional frameworks for the regulation of electricity sectors, much work remains in strengthening regulatory independence, says the Electricity Regulatory Index for Africa.
AfDB joins Global Infrastructure Facility as technical partner
20-06-2018 | 06:27:23
Africa’s infrastructure financing needs are huge. Innovative partnerships are needed to bridge the financing gap and accelerate infrastructure development in Transport, ICT, Water and Energy, that are considered as drivers for growth.
AfDB approves $15m equity investment in agribusiness in Africa
14-06-2018 | 07:43:00
The African Development Bank Board has approved a US$15 million equity investment in Africa Food Security Fund (AFSF), to support enterprises in agri-business SMEs and enhance food security in Africa.
[Kenya Business Week] Energizing investor relations
13-06-2018 | 09:27:46
Kenya this week continues to strategically place itself to benefit from regional integration and reap from its warm relationship with development partners and international investors.
AfDB and CIF fund geothermal power plant in Kenya
11-06-2018 | 09:28:00
The African Development Bank approved on June 6, 2018 a senior loan of US $29.5 million and a concessional loan of US $20 million from the Climate Investment Funds Clean Technology Fund to Quantum Power East Africa GT Menengai.
AfDB promotes better access to mortgage finance in Ghana
07-06-2018 | 06:22:00
The African Development Bank approved a US $15-million senior loan to GHL Bank PLC, which focuses on mortgage finance, to enhance its mortgage loan portfolio and help develop an effective affordable mortgage finance sector in Ghana.
[Africa Tech Week] Beyond borders partnerships herald new ICT dawn, Great tidings for tech startups, investment in technology soars
24-05-2018 | 15:53:00
The Africa tech week has been abuzz with news of cross border public and private sector partnerships, companies aligning themselves with the burgeoning demands of the continent’s ICT sector and the growing IT spend.
South Korea ready to share its technological and industrial revolution experience with Africa says President Moon Jae-in
24-05-2018 | 13:59:00
South Korean President Moon Jae-in has committed to sharing Korea’s technological and industrial experience with Africa and to help it compete in the 4th Industrial Revolution.
[Nigeria Business Week] With Construction, Agribusiness, Oil and Gas and startup hubs, Nigeria leaves no sector behind
24-05-2018 | 13:15:00
Two years ago Nigeria was as good as drowning in debts, unemployment, reduced investment and general widespread discontent. Today, though still a work in progress, the country has exited recession and is fast regaining its momentum.
East Africa dominates 2018 African Banker Awards
22-05-2018 | 15:31:00
The CEO of Equity Group Holdings Plc in Kenya, James Mwangi, won Banker of the Year.
African Development Bank and UNIDO join efforts to accelerate Africa’s industrialization
22-05-2018 | 06:35:00
The African Development Bank and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Monday, May 21 to step up collaboration to boost Africa’s industrialization.
[Nigeria] African Development Bank approves $100m loan to Indorama for expansion of fertilizer production
21-05-2018 | 06:26:00
The African Development Bank has approved $100m senior loan to Nigerian firm, Indorama Eleme Fertilizer & Chemicals, to support the company’s plans to double its fertilizer production from 1.4 million tons of urea to 2.8 million tons per annum.
AfDB Board approves €200m loan to support Morocco's Agriculture value chains
17-05-2018 | 13:11:00
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank has approved EUR 200 million loan to support inclusive and Sustainable Development of Agricultural Value Chains in Morocco.
AfDB has signed two grant agreements to finance agri-business development projects
08-05-2018 | 14:05:00
The Agriculture Fast Track Fund supports Africa-based agri-business SMEs by financing the development costs of agriculture infrastructure projects that span the value chain from rural feeder roads to agro-processing and marketing facilities, to out-grower schemes.
AfDB accelerates Agribusiness Development in Ethiopia through Agriculture Fast Track Fund
08-05-2018 | 05:11:00
The African Development Bank has signed two grant agreements to finance agri-business development projects through the Agriculture Fast Track Fund.
African Development Bank debars CHINT Electric for 36 months for fraudulent practices
07-05-2018 | 13:13:00
The African Development Bank Group has announced the conclusion of a settlement agreement with CHINT Electric Co., Ltd., a power transmission and distribution equipment manufacturer and EPC contractor.
African Development Bank launches “Say No to Famine” project in Somalia
25-04-2018 | 06:48:00
The African Development Bank has launched the Say No to Famine – Short-Term Regional Emergency Response Project, STRERP, for Somalia.
European Investment Bank and AfDB collaborate to support private sector investment in Nigeria
19-04-2018 | 12:22:02
The European Investment Bank and the African Development Bank have agreed to support the creation of the new Development Bank of Nigeria to strengthen lending for business and agriculture investment in the country.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation, AfDB and ALCB Fund sign loan agreement to support capital markets and high impact sectors in Africa
16-04-2018 | 07:50:00
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the African Development Bank (AfDB) and ALCB Fund Board Members have signed a loan agreement to support high impact sectors in Africa focusing on housing, agriculture and SMEs.
Trade Finance Operation inks $100 million soft commodity finance facility agreement with the Export Trading Group
16-04-2018 | 07:36:00
The African Development Bank has signed a loan agreement for a soft commodity finance facility with the Export Trading Group.
AfDB’s Trade Finance Operation signs $100m soft commodity finance facility agreement with the Export Trading Group
12-04-2018 | 14:53:18
The African Development Bank has signed a loan agreement for a soft commodity finance facility (SCFF) with the Export Trading Group (ETC).
African Development Bank, stakeholders chart new course for aviation
12-04-2018 | 06:36:00
The African Development Bank assembled top representatives from African airlines and development partners to discuss the future of aviation in Africa.
African Development Bank provides $11.23 million to Madagascar for energy, agriculture and pest control
06-04-2018 | 06:23:07
The Government of Madagascar and the African Development Bank Group (AfDB) have signed five project financing agreements in Antananarivo, for an approximately $11.23 million.
Africa’s premier investment marketplace to accelerate continent’s economic transformation
03-04-2018 | 07:46:32
To help Africa find the path to its long-deserved economic fortune, the African Development Bank is championing the region’s premier investment market.
Africa’s premier investment marketplace to accelerate continent’s economic transformation
28-03-2018 | 08:55:00
To help Africa find the path to its long-deserved economic fortune, the African Development Bank is championing the region’s premier investment market.
African Development Bank pledges full support towards success of Continental Free Trade Area
26-03-2018 | 05:30:00
The African Development Bank celebrates with Africa and pledges its full support to achieve the success of the recently launched Continental Free Trade Area, as part of its strategy to help Integrate Africa.
[Rwanda] African Development Bank, partners fund construction of 208 kilometre regional road project set to benefit over one million people
22-03-2018 | 06:00:00
The African Development Bank and other development partners have joined the Government of Rwanda to launch the rehabilitation of the Kagitumba-Kayonza-Rusumo road works in the Eastern province of Rwanda.
Rwanda Innovation Fund project to receive $30 million loan from African Development Bank
20-03-2018 | 05:49:44
The Board of the African Development Bank Group has approved a loan of US $30 million to support the establishment of Rwanda Innovation Fund (RIF).
AfDB undertakes High Power Sector mission in Nigeria
19-03-2018 | 06:45:00
The African Development Bank has undertaken a mission to hold further discussions on Nigeria’s Power Sector Recovery Program (PSRP) with several stakeholders in Abuja, the country’s capital, from March 14-16, 2018.
African Development Bank and the International Solar Alliance team up to drive solar development in Africa
19-03-2018 | 06:00:00
The African Development Bank’s Vice-President for Power, Energy, Climate and Green Growth, Amadou Hott, took part in the Founding Conference of the International Solar Alliance (ISA).
East African region records best economic performance in the continent, AfDB outlook
13-03-2018 | 13:00:14
The African Development Bank has expanded its flagship publication, the African Economic Outlook, with five regional reports.
African Development Bank signs deal with International Solar Alliance to propel solar development in Africa
13-03-2018 | 07:33:17
In a major boost for its Light up and power Africa initiative, the African Development Bank has entered into partnership with the International Solar Alliance (ISA) to scale up solar energy in Africa.
Africa’s population explosion is a ticking time bomb, African Development Bank Governors
08-03-2018 | 06:31:00
The African Development Bank and its East and North African Governors have stressed the need for urgent measures to match the continent’s growing population and youth unemployment.
African Development Bank and Mozambique sign $29 million grant agreements to finance agriculture and skills acquisition projects
02-03-2018 | 08:10:00
African Development Bank and the Government of Mozambique have signed grant agreements for two operations totaling $ 29 million.
The African Development Bank updates its African Bond Index
19-02-2018 | 08:46:00
The African Development Bank has updated its composite index available to Bloomberg Professional® service subscribers via {BADB Index}.
African Development Bank, Egyptian government push for a new Africa driven by innovation
14-02-2018 | 06:09:00
The President of the African Development Bank, Akinwumi Adesina, and the Government of Egypt are championing a new push for African countries to work together towards building a new Africa driven by innovation and technology.
African Development Bank approves ZAR 140-million loan to support African Local Currency Bond Fund
05-02-2018 | 12:02:00
The Board of the African Development Bank has approved a loan ZAR 140 million to the African Local Currency Bond Fund to further enhance the Fund’s portfolio and promote the development of domestic capital markets across the continent.
African Development Bank to reach 29.3 million Africans with electricity by 2020
30-01-2018 | 06:26:16
In line with its High 5 development priorities and, in particular, its agenda to Light up and power Africa, the African Development Bank plans to reach 29.3 million people in African with electricity by 2020.
African Development Bank provides $21 million for Central Africa fiber backbone project
25-01-2018 | 06:15:21
The African Development Bank (AfDB) Group will work towards the realization of a system for fiber optic interconnection between the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Congo.
Egypt receives $500 million from AfDB to support governance reforms
18-01-2018 | 06:28:00
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank has approved a $500-million loan to finance Egypt’s Economic Governance and Energy Support Program Phase III.
African Development Bank launches the 2018 edition of the African Economic Outlook
16-01-2018 | 12:03:00
The African Development Bank is set to launch the 2018 edition of its yearly flagship report. As a leading African institution, the Bank is the first to provide headline numbers on Africa’s macroeconomic performance and outlook.
Niger receives $ 43 million from the African Development Bank in budgetary support
12-01-2018 | 06:40:00
Niger has received$ 43 million from the African Development Bank to support its budget.
Africa Development Bank invests $14 million in Togo agribusiness
08-01-2018 | 06:51:00
The African Development Bank (AfDB) Group has provided Togo with budget support from a grant from the African Development Fund (ADF) of $1.82 billion.
AfDB, Nordic Development Fund, Global Environment Facility and Calvert Impact Capital partner in $55m investment into Off-Grid Energy Access Fund
05-01-2018 | 08:27:00
On December 15, the African Development Bank’s Board approved a US $30-million investment in the Facility for Energy Inclusion Off-Grid Energy Access Fund.
African Development Bank Board approves third sovereign lending instrument
03-01-2018 | 08:16:45
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank Group approved the Bank’s third sovereign lending instrument called the Results-Based Financing Policy.
Kenya to build 10MW waste-to-energy electricity plant
29-12-2017 | 09:03:00
The Africa Development Bank’s Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa has approved a grant of US$995,000 to Asticom Kenya Ltd, to support the construction of a 10MW grid-connected municipal waste-to-energy plant.
African Development Bank achieves 100% investment in green energy Projects in 2017
28-12-2017 | 14:32:00
The African Development Bank achieved a 100% investment in renewable energy in 2017, a major landmark in its commitment to clean energy and efficiency.
African Development Bank to raise $8 billion from capital markets in 2018
22-12-2017 | 06:32:00
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank has approved the Bank’s 2018 borrowing program for $8 billion to be raised from capital markets.
Women, youth and SMEs to benefit from African Development Bank’s $100 million loan to Mauritius
12-12-2017 | 05:35:32
Thousands of small and medium enterprises in Mauritius will benefit from a US $100-million loan to the country from the African Development Bank.
AfDB supports Namibia’s agriculture sector with one billion South African Rands
06-12-2017 | 06:00:00
The African Development Bank Group is supporting Namibia’s Agriculture Sector with the approval of One Billion South African Rands (*ZAR 1 billion) loan to finance the country’s Agricultural Mechanisation and Seed Improvement Project.
AfDB and WWF agree to focus on conservation, energy and agriculture
30-11-2017 | 13:55:00
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Africa Development Bank (AfDB) have announced a new three-year partnership agreement.
The African Development Bank and the European Commission ink agreements to co-finance road projects in West Africa
30-11-2017 | 09:38:00
The African Development Bank and the European Commission on Monday 27 November 2017 signed five co-financing agreements to support road infrastructure projects in West Africa.
[Kenya] AfDB supports Jomo Kenyatta International Airport expansion project
29-11-2017 | 08:52:00
Efforts being made by Kenya’s government to make Nairobi an aviation hub has received a big boost from the African development Bank which approved a US$ 160m loan for the expansion of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport.
AfDB signs $300million private sector loan agreement for Nacala Corridor project
29-11-2017 | 07:15:00
The African Development Bank (AfDB) and other participating co-lenders has signed agreements for the financing of the Nacala Corridor project.
AfDB launches Youth Advisory Group to create 25 million jobs
28-11-2017 | 09:26:53
The President of the African Development Bank Group, Akinwumi Adesina, has launched the Presidential Youth Advisory Group (PYAG) to provide insights and innovative solutions for job creation for Africa's youth, as outlined in the Bank's Jobs for Youth in Africa Strategy.
Africa Capital Works Fund wins $15m AfDB equity investment
27-11-2017 | 14:30:00
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank (AfDB) has approved a US$ 15m equity participation in Africa Capital Works Fund.
AfDB earmarks $84m for skills and business development in Rwanda
27-11-2017 | 07:18:21
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank (AfDB) has approved US$84.3m loan to finance a Skills and Business Development Programme (SBDP) in Rwanda.
Ethiopia secures $ 100 million AfDB funding for power systems upgrade
24-11-2017 | 10:53:37
Executive Directors of the African Development Bank Group have approved a loan and a grant amounting to $101.46m for the rehabilitation of power systems in Ethiopia.
AfDB Group approves €122m loan for Tunisia road Improvement project
23-11-2017 | 07:48:00
The Board of the African Development Bank Group (AfDB) has approved a loan of €112 million to help finance the North-East Road Connectivity Support Project in Tunisia.
IATA, African Development Bank sign MoU to advance Africa’s aviation
22-11-2017 | 12:45:00
The International Air Transport Association and the African Development Bank have signed a memorandum of understanding to establish a framework for collaboration to boost the aviation sector in Africa.
[Rwanda] AfDB Board approves $171m loans for water and sanitation program
20-11-2017 | 08:14:57
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank Group (AfDB) has approved two loans amounting to US$ 171 million to finance Rwanda’s Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation Program.
SEFA invests $90,000 to support development of a biomass-to-power plant in South Africa
10-11-2017 | 08:32:00
The Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa (SEFA) has approved $990,000 to eThala Management Services, to support the development of a 10-MW Biomass-to-Power plant to be located in the KwaZulu Natal Province of South Africa.
Tunisia receives $141 million from AfDB to finance inclusive regional development
07-11-2017 | 09:12:00
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank Group has approved a loan of $141 million to Tunisia, intended to finance the second phase of the Regional Development Support Program.
AfDB partners with Purdue University to make technologies available to African farmers
03-11-2017 | 13:00:00
The African Development Bank (AfDB) and Purdue University in the United States have agreed to work together to make technologies available to millions of farmers in Africa.